December 1, 2023

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Can Medical Debt Take Your House?

Medical expenses can be a tremendous financial burden, particularly for those who are uninsured or underinsured. According to a study by the Kaiser Family Foundation, nearly one in four Americans struggles to pay medical bills. For those who are unable to pay their medical debts, the question of whether their home is at risk is a pressing concern. In this article, we will explore the topic of whether medical debt can take your house, examining the laws governing medical debt and property ownership, as well as offering strategies for managing medical bills.

Understanding Medical Debt


Medical debt is a form of consumer debt, which means it is typically unsecured. Unlike a mortgage or a car loan, medical debt is not secured by collateral. This means that if you fail to pay your medical bills, the hospital or medical provider does not automatically have a right to seize your property in order to satisfy the debt. However, there are some situations in which medical debt could lead to the loss of a home.

Medical liens

One scenario in which medical debt could put your home at risk is if a medical provider files a medical lien against your property. A lien is a legal claim against an asset that secures a debt; in the case of a medical lien, the lien holder has the right to collect payment from the proceeds of the sale of the property. Not all states allow medical liens, and the laws governing medical liens vary from state to state. In general, medical providers must follow a specific process in order to file a medical lien; this process typically involves obtaining a judgment against the debtor in court. Medical liens are typically only allowed for very large medical bills, and only if the debtor owns property above a certain value.

Home equity loans

Another way in which medical debt could impact your home ownership is if you take out a home equity loan to pay medical bills. A home equity loan is a loan taken out against the value of your home, and it is secured by your home as collateral. If you fail to pay back the loan, the lender could foreclose on your home to satisfy the debt. If you find that you are struggling to pay your medical bills, it may be tempting to take out a home equity loan in order to cover your expenses. However, this can be a risky move, as it puts your home at risk if you are unable to keep up with the loan payments.

Managing Medical Debt

If you are struggling to pay your medical bills, there are several strategies you can use to manage your debt and protect your assets.

Negotiate with your healthcare provider

One of the first steps you should take if you are facing medical bills you cannot afford is to negotiate with your healthcare provider. Many providers are willing to work out payment plans or offer discounts for patients who cannot afford to pay their bills in full. If you are uninsured or underinsured, be sure to ask about any available financial assistance programs.

Explore your insurance options

If you are uninsured, be sure to explore your options for obtaining coverage. Depending on your income level, you may be eligible for Medicaid or subsidized insurance through the Affordable Care Act. Even if you are insured, you may be able to reduce your out-of-pocket expenses by researching your plan’s coverage guidelines and negotiating with your provider.

Consider bankruptcy

Although it should be considered a last resort, bankruptcy is an option for those who are overwhelmed by medical bills. A bankruptcy filing can temporarily halt collection actions like wage garnishment or foreclosure, and in some cases, it can discharge medical debt entirely. However, bankruptcy can have long-lasting effects on your credit score and financial future, so it should only be pursued after careful consideration and consultation with a bankruptcy attorney.


Q: Can medical debt affect my credit score?

A: Yes, unpaid medical bills can negatively impact your credit score. However, some credit scoring models are less harsh on medical debt than others, and some will exclude medical debt from calculations if it has been paid or is being paid in installments.

Q: Can medical debt collectors call me at home or work?

A: Yes, debt collectors are permitted to contact you by phone or mail. However, they are prohibited from using harassment, threats, or other abusive tactics.

Q: Can wage garnishment be used to collect medical debt?

A: Yes, if a creditor obtains a judgment against you, they can request wage garnishment to collect the debt. However, wage garnishment is subject to limitations under state and federal law. In some cases, medical debt may be exempt from wage garnishment.


Medical debt can be a significant burden for many Americans, particularly those who are uninsured or underinsured. Although medical debt does not automatically put your home at risk, there are situations in which it could lead to the loss of property. By negotiating with healthcare providers, exploring insurance options, and seeking assistance from financial counselors or attorneys, you can manage medical debt and protect your assets. If you are struggling with medical debt, it is important to seek help and explore all of your options for managing your debt responsibly.

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Article Summary:

Medical debt in the US is a highly contentious issue, as it can place a large financial burden on patients and their families. There is concern that medical debt could lead to the loss of a home, but the reality is that medical debt is typically unsecured. Only a medical lien against a property, which varies from state to state and is only permitted for very large medical bills, or a home equity loan that has been used to pay for medical expenses, could lead to the loss of a home. Patients with medical debt who are struggling to pay their bills can negotiate payment plans, explore their insurance options or seek assistance from financial counsellors or attorneys.

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