December 1, 2023

Photo by Dalle-E OpenAI


Medical debt in America has become a significant concern for many families. In 2019, a survey conducted by the Kaiser Family Foundation showed that one in four Americans struggled to pay medical bills, and most of them claimed that their bills were unexpected. The situation is even worse when we talk about medical debt incurred by spouses. It’s not uncommon for couples to share finances and bank accounts, so medical debt incurred by one spouse can quickly become a burden on both partners. This begs the question, “Am I responsible for my spouse’s medical debt?”.

Understanding How Debt Works:


Before diving into the details of spousal medical debt, it’s essential first to have a clear understanding of how debt works. In general, when an individual takes out a loan or incurs any debt, they are solely responsible for repaying that debt. It doesn’t matter if the loan was taken out while married or not. The lender’s primary concern is that the individual who signed the paperwork is responsible for repaying that amount.

Marriage and Joint Property:

However, the law may view spousal debt differently, especially when it comes to joint property. When spouses get married, they usually share joint property. In other words, assets like homes, cars, bank accounts, and even debt can become shared. When one person incurs a debt, it’s not uncommon for both individuals to be responsible.

In some states, such as Arizona, Wisconsin, and California, community property laws govern spousal debts. Community Property law requires that all assets and debts acquired during a marriage belong equally to both spouses. This means that spouses in community property states have the same ownership rights to these assets as they do to their shared debts.

It’s worth noting that most states don’t follow community property laws. Instead, they follow common law principles. If you’re unsure of your state’s specific laws, it’s essential to speak with a qualified attorney to clarify any confusion.

Are You Responsible for Your Spouse’s Medical Debt?

When it comes to medical debt, things can get tricky. Medical bills are unsecured debts, meaning that they aren’t backed by any collateral. That’s why people can quickly accumulate a large amount of medical debt without even realizing it. It’s not uncommon for persons to receive medical treatments and be unsure of how much they owe when they leave the hospital.

The laws regarding spousal medical debt can vary based on the state in which you live. In general, spouses are not typically responsible for each other’s medical debt unless they live in a community property state. Under most common law states, spousal medical debt is only the responsibility of the person who incurred the debt.

However, there are a few exceptions to this rule, specifically when it comes to medical emergencies. In these cases, if one spouse is unable to act on behalf of themselves due to circumstances such as unconsciousness, the other spouse is responsible for their medical bills. It’s important to note that some hospitals may require a spouse to sign a form acknowledging that they will be responsible for the medical bills.

If you are unsure about your state’s laws relating to spousal medical debt, you should speak with a qualified attorney to help clarify any confusion. Additionally, it’s important to check your wording for any consent forms you sign at the hospital. Make sure you understand what you’re signing before you do so.

Ways to Protect Yourself from Spousal Medical Debt:

Even if you’re not held responsible for your spouse’s medical bills, it’s still essential to safeguard yourself financially. Here are a few ways to protect yourself from spousal medical debt.

1. Keep Your Finances Separate: One of the simplest ways to protect yourself is to keep your finances separate. If you don’t share a bank account, you won’t be held responsible for any debt that your spouse accrues.

2. Experiment with Legal Separation Agreements: Legal separation agreements can be made in common-law states to protect spouses from one another’s debts. This agreement outlines how debts will be split between the parties, and it also provides each spouse with a legal framework to express their means and intent to pay for their debts.

3. Consider Financial Planning: Financial planning can help you to get a better idea of your financial situation and work out a plan to eliminate or minimize your debts and bills.


Q: What is joint property?

A: Joint property refers to a form of ownership where assets are owned by more than one person, typically spouses.

Q: What is community property?

A: Community property is a form of ownership where married individuals share ownership of all assets and debts accumulated during the marriage in terms of 50/50.

Q: Am I liable for my spouse’s medical debt in a common-law state?

A: Typically, spouses are not responsible for each other’s medical bills in a common-law state. But, like most things, it can vary depending on the state where you live. Do your research or consult with a qualified attorney.

Q: Can hospitals go after my personal assets for spousal medical debt?

A: Typically, hospitals cannot go after your personal assets for spousal medical debt unless you signed a consent form or a legal document, potentially making you legally responsible for the debt.


Medical debt can be a significant burden for anyone, especially if it’s your spouse that’s affected. In general, spouses are not responsible for each other’s medical bills unless you live in a community property state. However, there are circumstances where you may be on the hook for your partner’s medical bills. Its best to prepare for the unpredictable by keeping your finances separate, considering a legal separation agreement, or seeking financial planning assistance. Protect yourself legally as much as possible by educating yourself on your states laws and understanding the documents you may be signing.

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Article Summary:

Medical debt is a significant concern for American families, with one in four struggling to pay medical bills, according to a 2019 survey. When it comes to spousal medical debt, the responsibility can vary based on state laws. Most common law states hold the person who incurred the debt liable, while community property states require both spouses to take responsibility equally. Still, there are exceptions, such as medical emergencies, where one spouse may be held responsible for the other’s bills. To protect yourself from spousal medical debt, consider keeping your finances separate, seeking financial planning, or utilizing a legal separation agreement if you live in a common law state.

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